Preview

Общая реаниматология

Расширенный поиск

Варианты поперечно-плоскостной блокады и блокады квадратной мышцы (обзор)

https://doi.org/10.15360/1813-9779-2019-3-102-113

Полный текст:

Аннотация

Эффективная реализация концепции fast track (быстрая активизация пациента) после хирургического лечения невозможна без контроля над болью в раннем послеоперационном периоде. Использование регионарных методов как компонента мультимодальной терапии боли позволяет существенно улучшить качество послеоперационного обезболивания и ускорить активизацию пациента. Внедрение ультразвуковой навигации при применении блокад периферических нервов существенно повысило эффективность и безопасность последних. Тем не менее, каждый метод регионарного обезболивания имеет свои показания, противопоказания и осложнения. Цель данного обзора — помочь с выбором типа блокады передней брюшной стенки в зависимости от выполненного оперативного вмешательства.

Об авторах

О. А. Махарин
Ростовский государственный медицинский университет Минздрава России; Городская больница № 6
Россия
344022, г. Ростов-на-Дону, переулок Нахичеванский, д. 29 ;  344025, г. Ростов-на-Дону, ул. Сарьяна, д. 85/38


В. М. Женило
Ростовский государственный медицинский университет Минздрава России
Россия
344022, г. Ростов-на-Дону, переулок Нахичеванский, д. 29


М. Л. Скобло
Городская больница № 6
Россия
344025, г. Ростов-на-Дону, ул. Сарьяна, д. 85/38


Список литературы

1. Мазитова М.И., Мустафин Э.Р. Fast Track хирургия — мультимодальная стратегия ведения хирургических больных. Казанский медицинкий журнал, 2012; 9 (5): 799-802.

2. Яхно Н.Н., Кукушкин М.Л. Хроническая боль: медикобиологические и социально-экономические аспекты. Вестник РАМН, 2012; 9: 54-58.

3. Lamacraft G. The link between acute postoperative pain and chronic pain syndrom. South Afr J Anaesth Analg 2012; 18 (1): 45-50.

4. Steyaert A., Lavand’homme P. Postoperative opioids: let us take responsibility for the possible consequences. Eur. J. Anaesthesiol. 2013; 30 (2): 50-52. DOI: 10.1097/EJA.0b013e32835b9db2. PMID: 23303242

5. Бессмертный А.Е., Антипин Э.Э., Уваров Д.Н., Седых С.В., Недашковский Э.В. Сравнение эффективности подвздошнопаховой/подвздошно-подчревной блокады и блокады поперечного пространства живота для обезболивания после кесарева сечения. Анестезиологи и реаниматология. 2015; 2: 51-54.

6. Rozen W.M., Tran T.M., Ashton M.W., Barrington M.J., Ivanusic J.J., Taylor G.I. Refining the course of the thoracolumbar nerves: a new understanding of the innervation of the anterior abdominal wall. Clin Anat. 2008; 21 (4): 325-333. DOI: 10.1002/ca.20621. PMID: 18428988.

7. Albrecht E., Kirkham K.R., Endersby R.V., Chan V.W., Jackson T., Okrainec A., Penner T., Jin R., Brull R. Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block for laparoscopic gastric-bypass surgery: a prospective randomized controlled double-blinded trial. Obes Surg. 2013;23 (8): 1309–1314. DOI:10.1007/s11695-013-0958-3. PMID: 23591549.

8. Petersen P.L., Mathiesen O., Stjernholm P., Kristiansen V.B., Torup H., Hansen E.G., Mitchell A.U., Moeller A., Rosenberg J., Dahl J.B. The effect of transversus abdominis plane block or local anaesthetic infiltration in inguinal hernia repair: a randomised clinical trial. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2013; 30 (7): 415–421. DOI: 10.1097/ EJA.0b013e32835 fc86f. PMID:23549122.

9. Araco A., Pooney J., Araco F., Gravante G. Transversus abdominis plane block reduces the analgesic requirements after abdominoplasty with flank liposuction. Ann Plast Surg. 2010;65 (4): 385–388. DOI: 10.1097/SAP.0b013e3181cc2a24. PMID: 20798634.

10. Sforza M., Andjelkov K., Zaccheddu R., Nagi H., Colic M. Transversus abdominis plane block anesthesia in abdominoplasties. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011; 128 (2): 529–535. DOI: 10.1097/PRS.0b013e31821e6f51. PMID: 21788846.

11. Johns N., O’Neill S., Ventham N.T., Barron F., Brady R.R., Daniel T. Clinical effectiveness of Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) block in abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Colorectal Dis. 2012;14 (10): e635–e642. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-1318.2012.03104.x. PMID: 24843434.

12. Skjelsager A., Ruhnau B., Kistorp T.K., Kridina I., Hvarness H., Mathiesen O., Dahl J.B. Transversus abdominis plane block or subcutaneous wound infiltration after open radical prostatectomy: a randomized study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2013; 57 (4): 502–508. DOI: 10.1111/aas.12080. PMID: 23387340.

13. Sahin L., Sahin M., Gul R., Saricicek V., Isikay N. Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block in children: a randomised comparison with wound infiltration. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2013; 30 (7): 409– 414. DOI: 10.1097/EJA.0b013e32835d2fcb. PMID: 23338056.

14. Sandeman D.J., Bennett M., Dilley A.V., Perczuk A., Lim S., Kelly K.J. Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane blocks for laparoscopic appendicectomy in children: a prospective randomized trial. Br J Anaesth. 2011; 106 (6): 882–886. DOI: 10.1093/bja/aer069. PMID: 21504934

15. Овечкин А.М. Послеоперационное обезболивание в акушерстве и гинекологии (Аналитический обзор). Регионарная анестезия и лечение острой боли. 2014; 8 (2): 5–16.

16. Заболотский Д.В., Рязанова О.В., Мамсуров А.С., Александрович Ю.С., Малашенко Н.С. Варианты послеоперационной анальгезии при кесаревом сечении. Что выбрать? Регионарная анестезия и лечение острой боли. 2013; 3: 16–20.

17. Свирский Д.А., Антипин Э.Э., Уваров Д.Н., Недашковский Э.В. Оценка эффективности блокады поперечного пространства живота как мультимодальной послеоперационной анальгезии после кесарева сечения. Анестезиологи и реаниматология. 2012; 6: 33-35.

18. Недашковский Э.В., Седых С.В., Закурдаев Е.И. Использование визуально-аналоговой шкалы при оценке выраженности болевого синдрома после кесарева сечения в зависимости от метода обезболивания. Анестезиология и реаниматология. 2016; 61 (5): 372-376. DOI:10.18821/0201-7563-2016-61-5-372-376

19. Atim A., Bilgin F., Kilickaya O., Purtuloglu T., Alanbay I., Orhan M.E., Kurt E. The efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block in patients undergoing hysterectomy. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2011; 39 (4): 630–634. PMID: 21823381.

20. Sivapurapu V., Vasudevan A., Gupta S., Badhe A.S. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block with direct infiltration of local anesthetic into surgical incision in lower abdominal gynecological surgeries. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2013; 29 (1): 71–75. DOI: 10.4103/0970-9185.105807. PMID: 23493578.

21. Belavy D., Cowlishaw P.J., Howes M., Phillips F. Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for analgesia after Caesarean delivery. Br J Anaesth. 2009; 103 (5): 726–730. DOI: 10.1093/bja/aep235. PMID: 19700776.

22. Hebbard P. D., Barrington M. J., Vasey C. Ultrasound-guided continuous oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane blockade: Description of anatomy and clinical technique. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 2010; 35 (5): 436–441. DOI: 10.1097/AAP.0b013e3181 e66702. PMID: 20830871.

23. Takimoto K., Sakai N., Ono M. The effects of adding upper and lower subcostal transversus abdominis plane blocks to a lateral transversus abdominis plane block after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomised, double-blind clinical trial. European Journal of Anaesthesiology. 2015; 32 (11): 819–820. DOI: 10.1097/EJA.0000000000000305. PMID: 26148169.

24. Hebbard P. Subcostal transversus abdominis plane block under ultrasound guidance. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2008; 106 (2): 674–675. DOI: 10.1213/ane.0b013e318161a88f. PMID: 20514952.

25. Lee T. H. W., Barrington M. J., Tran T. M. N., Wong D., Hebbard P. D. Comparison of extent of sensory block following posterior and subcostal approaches to ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 2010; 38 (3): 452–460. PMID: 20514952.

26. Abdallah F. W., Laffey J. G., Halpern S. H., Brull R. Duration of analgesic effectiveness after the posterior and lateral transversus abdominis plane block techniques for transverse lower abdominal incisions: a meta-analysis. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2013; 111 (5): 721–735. DOI: 10.1093/bja/aet214. PMID: 23811424.

27. Desmet M., Helsloot D., Vereecke E., Missant C., Van De Velde M. Pneumoperitoneum Does Not Influence Spread of Local Anesthetics in Midaxillary Approach Transversus Abdominis Plane Block: A Descriptive Cadaver Study. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 2015; 40 (4): 349–354. DOI:10.1097/AAP.0000000000000260. PMID: 26066380.

28. Yoshiyama S., Ueshima H., Sakai R., Otake H. A posterior tap block provides more effective analgesia than a lateral tap block in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecologic surgery: a retrospective study. Anesthesiology Research and Practice ; 2016: 9. DOI: 10.1155/2016/4598583.4598583. PMID: 26941794.

29. Lin J.-A., Nakamoto T., Yeh S.-D. Ultrasound standard for obturator nerve block: the modified Taha’s approach. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2015; 114 (2): 337–339. DOI: 10.1093/bja/aeu467. PMID: 25596216.

30. Lin J.-A., Lee Y.-J., Lu H.-T., Lin Y.-T. Ultrasound standard for popliteal sciatic block: Circular expansion of the paraneural sheath with the needle in-plane fromlateral-to-medial in the ‘reverse Sim’s position’. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2015;115 (6): 938–940. DOI: 10.1093/bja/aev388. PMID: 26582859.

31. Lin J.-A., Lu H.-T., Chen T.-L. Ultrasound standard for lumbar plexus block. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2014; 113 (1): 188–189. DOI:10.1093/bja/aeu213. PMID: 24942716.

32. Blanco R., Ansari T., Girgis E. Quadratus lumborum block for postoperative pain after caesarean section: a randomised controlled trial. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2015; 32 (11): 812–818. DOI: 10.1097/EJA.0000000 000000299. PMID: 26225500.

33. Blanco R. Optimal point of injection: the quadratus lumborum type I and II blocks. Anesthesia. 2013; 68:4. DOI: 10.1016/j.redar.2013. 01.002. PMID: 23453236.

34. Børglum J., Gögenür I., Bendtsen T.F. Abdominal wall blocks in adults. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2016; 29 (5): 638-643. DOI: 10.1097/ACO. 0000000000000378. PMID: 27429253.

35. Benetazzo L., Bizzego A., De Caro R., Frigo G., Guidolin D., Stecco C. 3D reconstruction of the crural and thoracolumbar fasciae. Surg Radiol Anat. 2011; 33: 855–862. DOI: 10.1007/s00276-010-0757-7. PMID: 21203765.

36. Carney J., Finnerty O., Rauf J., Bergin D., Laffey J.G., Mc Donnell J.G. Studies on the spread of local anaesthetic solution in transversus abdominis plane blocks. Anaesthesia. 2011; 66: 1023–1030. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2044.2011.06855.x.PMID: 21851346.

37. Kumar A., Sadeghi N., Wahal C., Gadsden J., Grant S.A. Quadratus lumborum spares paravertebral space in fresh cadaver injection. Anesth Analg. 2017; 125:708–709. DOI: 10.1213/ANE.000000 0000002245. PMID: 28654429.

38. Tamura T., Shuichi Y., Ito S., Shibata Y., Nishiwaki K.A. Crossover Healthy Volunteers Study of Quadratus Lumborum Block to Detect the Paravertebral Space Dissemination. Boston: ASA Annual Meeting; 2017.

39. Tesarz J., Hoheisel U., Wiedenhöfer B., Mense S. Sensory innervation of the thoracolumbar fascia in rats and humans. Neuroscience. 2011; 194: 302–308. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.07.066. PMID: 21839150.

40. Ueshima H., Otake H., Lin J.A. Ultrasound-guided quadratus lumborum block: an updated review of anatomy and techniques. Biomed Res Int. 2017. 2017:2752876. DOI: 10.1155/2017/2752876. PMID: 28154824.

41. Chin K.J., McDonnell J.G., Carvalho B., Sharkey A., Pawa A., Gadsden J. Essentials of our current understanding: abdominal wall blocks. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2017; 42:133–83. DOI: 10.1097/AAP.0000 000000000545. PMID: 28085788.

42. La Colla L., Uskova A., Ben-David B. Single-shot quadratus lumborum block for postoperative analgesia after minimally invasive hip arthroplasty: a new alternative to continuous lumbar plexus block? Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2017; 42:125–126. DOI: 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000523. PMID: 27997495.

43. Murouchi T., Iwasaki S., Yamakage M. Quadratus lumborum block: analgesic effects and chronological ropivacaine concentrations after laparoscopic surgery. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 2016; 41 (2): 146–150. DOI: 10.1097/aap.0000000000000349.PMID: 26735154.

44. Blanco R., Ansari T., Riad W., Shetty N. Quadratus lumborum block versus transversus abdominis plane block for postoperative pain after cesarean delivery: a randomized controlled trial. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2016; 41 (6): 757–762. DOI: 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000495. PMID: 27755488.

45. Salama E.R. Ultrasound guided bilateral quadratus lumborum block vs. intrathecal morphine for postoperative analgesia after cesarean section: a randomised controlled trial. Korean J Anesthesiol. 2019; DOI: 10.4097/kja.d.18.00269. PMID: 30852882.

46. Sebbag I., Qasem F., Dhir S. Ultrasound guided quadratus lumborum block for analgesia after cesarean delivery: case series. Rev Bras Anestesiol. 2017; 67 (4): 418–421. DOI: 10.1016/j.bjan.2017.03.002. PMID: 28416174.

47. Maenchen N., Hansen C.K., Dam M., Børglum J. Ultrasound-guided transmuscular quadratus lumborum (TQL) block for pain management after caesarean section. Int J Anesth Anesthesiol. 2016; 3: 048.10.23937/2377-4630/3/2/1048.

48. Nair A. Bilateral quadratus lumborum block for post-caesarean analgesia. Indian J Anaesth. 2017; 61 (4): 362–363. DOI:10.4103/ija.IJA_204_17. PMID: 28515533.

49. Krohg A., Ullensvang K., Rosseland L.A., Langesaeter E., Sauter A. The analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided quadratus lumborum block after cesarean delivery: a randomized clinical trial. Anesth Analg. 2018; 126 (2): 559–565. DOI:10.1213/ANE.0000000000002648. PMID: 29135590.

50. Ishio J., Komasawa N., Kido H., Minami T. Evaluation of ultrasoundguided posterior quadratus lumborum block for postoperative analgesia after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. J Clin Anesth. 2017; 41:1–4. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinane.2017.05.015. PMID: 28802593.

51. Kadam V.R. Ultrasound-guided quadratus lumborum block as a postoperative analgesic technique for laparotomy. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2013; 29: 550–552. DOI:10.4103/0970-9185.119148. PMID: 24249997.

52. Visoiu M., Yakovleva N. Continuous postoperative analgesia via quadratus lumborum block – an alternative to transversus abdominis plane block. Paediatr Anaesth. 2013; 23: 959–961. DOI 10.1111/pan.12240. PMID: 23927552.

53. Ueshima H., Hiroshi O. Intermittent bilateral anterior subcostal quadratus lumborum block for effective analgesia in lower abdominal surgery. J Clin Anesth. 2017; 43:65. DOI 10.1016/j.jclinane.2017.09.018. PMID: 29024834.

54. Chakraborty A., Goswami J., Patro V. Ultrasound-guided continuous quadrates lumborum block for postoperative analgesia in a pediatric patient. A A Case Rep. 2015; 4: 34–36. DOI 10.1213/XAA.0000000000000090. PMID: 25642956.

55. Chakraborty A., Khemka R., Datta T. Ultrasound-guided truncal blocks: a new frontier in regional anaesthesia. Indian J Anaesth. 2016; 60:703–711. DOI 10.4103/0019-5049.191665. PMID: 27761032.

56. Sindwani G., Sahu S., Suri A., Saeed Z. Bilateral quadratus lumborum block for postoperative analgesia in a Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome patient undergoing laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. Saudi J Anaesth. 2017; 11: 513–514. DOI 10.4103/sja.SJA_263_17. PMID: 29033750.

57. Cardoso J.M., Sá M., Reis H., Almeida L., Sampaio J.C., Pinheiro C., Machado D. Type II quadratus lumborum block for a subtotal gastrectomy in a septic patient. Braz J Anesthesiol. 2016;68 (2): 186-189. DOI 10.1016/j.bjan.2016.09.009. PMID: 27687315.

58. Carvalho R., Segura E., Loureiro M.D., Assunção J.P. Quadratus lumborum block in chronic pain after abdominal hernia repair: case report. Braz J Anesthesiol. 2017; 67:107–109. DOI 10.1016/j.bjane. 2014.08.010. PMID: 28017162.

59. Öksüz G., Bilal B., Gürkan Y., Urfalioðlu A., Arslan M., Gişi G., Öksüz H. Quadratus lumborum block versus transversus abdominis plane block in children undergoing low abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2017; 42 (5): 674–679. DOI 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000645. PMID: 28759502.

60. Watanabe K., Mitsuda S., Tokumine J., Lefor A.K., Moriyama K., Yorozu T. Quadratus lumborum block for femoral-femoral bypass graft placement: a case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95 (35): e4437. DOI 10.1097/MD.0000000000004437. PMID: 27583851.

61. Elsharkawy H. Quadratus lumborum blocks. Adv Anesth. 2017; 35 (1): 145–157. DOI 10.1016/j.aan.2017.07.007. PMID: 29103570.

62. Sato M., Hara M., Uchida O. An antero-lateral approach to ultrasound-guided lumbar plexus block in supine position combined with quadratus lumborum block using single-needle insertion for pediatric hip surgery. Paediatr Anaesth. 2017; 27 (10): 1064–1065. DOI 10.1111/pan.13208. PMID: 28888083.

63. Ueshima H., Yoshiyama S., Otake H. The ultrasound-guided continuous transmuscular quadratus lumborum block is an effective analgesia for total hip arthroplasty. J ClinAnest. 2016; 31:35. DOI 10.1016/j.jclinane.2015.12.033. PMID: 27185672.

64. Parras T., Blanco R. Randomised trial comparing the transversus abdominis plane block posterior approach or quadratus lumborum block type I with femoral block for postoperative analgesia in femoral neck fracture, both ultrasound-guided. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2016; 63 (3): 141–148. DOI 10.1016/j.redar.2015.06.012. PMID: 26302669.

65. Hockett M.M., Hembrador S., Lee A. Continuous quadratus lumborum block for postoperative pain in total hip arthroplasty: a case report. A A Case Rep. 2016; 7 (6): 129–131. DOI 10.1213/XAA. 0000000000000363. PMID: 27513972.

66. Ben-David B., La Colla L. Extravasated fluid in hip arthroscopy and pain: is quadratus lumborum block the answer? Anesth Analg. 2017; 125 (1): 364. DOI 10.1213/ANE.0000000000002198. PMID: 28609336.

67. Ueshima H., Hiroshi O. Lumbar vertebra surgery performed with a bilateral posterior quadratus lumborum block J Clin Anesth. 2017; 41:61. DOI 10.1016/j.jclinane.2017.06.012. PMID: 28802611.

68. Iwamitsu R., Ueshima H., Otake H. Intermittent bilateral posterior quadratus lumborum block was effective for pain management in lumbar spinal fusion. J Clin Anesth. 2017; 42:16. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinane.2017.08.012. PMID: 28793274.

69. Kerai S., Saxena K.N. Quadratus lumborum block for post-caesarean analgesia. Indian J Anaesth. 2017; 61:364. DOI: 10.4103/ija.IJA_220_17. PMID: 28515534.

70. Lancaster P., Chadwick M. Liver trauma secondary to ultrasoundguided transversus abdominis plane block. Br J Anaesth. 2010; 104 (4): 509–510. DOI: 10.1093/bja/aeq046. PMID: 20228188.

71. Manatakis D. K., Stamos N., Agalianos C., Karvelis M. A., Gkiaourakis M., Davides D. Transient femoral nerve palsy complicating “blind” transversus abdominis plane block. Case Reports in Anesthesiology. 2013; 2013: 3. DOI: 10.1155/2013/874215.874215. PMID: 24093065.

72. Scherrer V., Compere V., Loisel C., Dureuil B. Cardiac arrest from local anesthetic toxicity after a field block and transversus abdominis plane block: a consequence of miscommunication between the anesthesiologist and surgeon. A & A Case Reports. 2013;1 (5): 75–76. DOI: 10.1097/ACC.0b013e3182973a3f . PMID: 25612088.

73. Naidu R. K., Richebe P. Probable local anesthetic systemic toxicity in a postpartum patient with acute Fatty liver of pregnancy after a transversus abdominis plane block. A & A Case Reports. 2013;1 (5): 72–74. DOI: 10.1097/ACC.0b013e3182973a2f. PMID: 25612087.

74. Weiss E., Jolly C., Dumoulin J.-L., Meftah R.B., Blanié P., Laloë P.A., Tabary N, Fischler M., Le Guen M. Convulsions in 2 patients after bilateral ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane blocks for cesarean analgesia. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 2014;39 (3): 248–251. DOI: 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000088. PMID: 24682078.

75. Sakai T., Manabe W., Kamitani T., Takeyama E., Nakano S. Ropivacaine-induced late-onset systemic toxicity after transversus abdominis plane block under general anesthesia: successful reversal with 20% lipid emulsion. Masui (The Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology) 2010; 59 (12): 1502–1505. PMID: 21229691.

76. Bharti N., Kumar P., Bala I., Gupta V. The efficacy of a novel approach to transversus abdominis plane block for postoperative analgesia after colorectal surgery. Anesth Analg. 2011; 112:1504–1508. DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3182159bf8. PMID: 21467560.

77. Brady R.R., Ventham N.T., Roberts D.M., Graham C., Daniel T. Open transversus abdominis plane block and analgesic requirements in patients following right hemicolectomy. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2012; 94: 327–330. DOI:10.1308/003588412X13171221589856. PMID: 22943227.

78. Niraj G., Kelkar A., Hart E., Horst C., Malik D., Yeow C., Singh B., Chaudhri S. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of four-quadrant transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block and continuous posterior TAP analgesia with epidural analgesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery: an open-label, randomised, noninferiority trial. Anaesthesia. 2014; 69 (4): 348–355. DOI: 10.1111/anae.12546. PMID: 24641640.

79. Walter C.J., Maxwell-Armstrong C., Pinkney T.D., Conaghan P.J., Bedforth N., Gornall C.B., Bedforth N., Gornall C.B., Acheson A.G.. A randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Surg Endosc. 2013; 27 (7): 2366–2372. DOI: 10.1007/s00464013-2791-0. PMID: 23389068.


Для цитирования:


Махарин О.А., Женило В.М., Скобло М.Л. Варианты поперечно-плоскостной блокады и блокады квадратной мышцы (обзор). Общая реаниматология. 2019;15(3):102-113. https://doi.org/10.15360/1813-9779-2019-3-102-113

For citation:


Makharin O.A., Zhenilo V.M., Skoblo M.L. Variants of the Transverse Plane Block and Quadratus Lumborum Block (Review). General Reanimatology. 2019;15(3):102-113. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.15360/1813-9779-2019-3-102-113

Просмотров: 70


Creative Commons License
Контент доступен под лицензией Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 1813-9779 (Print)
ISSN 2411-7110 (Online)